BRONZE AGE CREMATIONS: an analysis of the human remains and the method of burial

 

 

088

THE SMALL FRAGMENTS OF CREMATED BONE FROM A BRONZE AGE BURIAL.

 

 

LICENCE Number O3E1717 (SITE OF KILBANE, COUNTY LIMERICK, EXCAVATED BY NIAMH O’CALLAGHAN, ARCHAEOLOGIST)

REPORT ON HUMAN REMAINS BY CATRYN POWER

SUMMARY

A total weight of 4247g of cremated human bone was examined. At Kilbane the practice of cremation was a long held funeral tradition. These people believed in life after death and made respectful provision for their deceased loved ones to speed them to the next world. Parts of two funerary urns were used as vessels to hold the cremated remains of people, which were then deposited in pits. The remains of fifty four cremated people were identified; of these four were juveniles, and four were teenagers. Social stratification was part of the burial custom. The sex of three males was established. Pathologies conditions were seen in four people. A genetic anatomical variation was recorded in one adult.

THE CHOICE OF CREMATION AS THE CHIEF BURIAL RITE

The philosophies of human thought are everywhere the same: the very nature of things that people do, their similar experiences, or the same religious needs of making sense of the world, which they then convey in ideas and customs. Worldwide disposing of the dead is generally dealt with by reverence and custom, and belief in an existence after death. The method of disposing of the dead varies according to the cultural group and of course, the environment. Throughout human existence Inhumation was always probably the most widespread manner. The custom of cremating the dead also dates back to very early times; it was a common funerary rite in prehistoric times, and is well documented. Cremation involves the burning of the corpse in a fire called a pyre, and subsequently the cremation was buried or dispersed at an appropriate place.

In the past some cultures considered fire to be a purifying virtue, refining the body for the hereafter and it was believed that a fiery dissolution was the natural transfer from life to death. Fire was also considered to be the master principle in the composition of life, so too it was natural to cease in fire. The Indian Brachmans, among others, thought that to end their days in fire was the noblest way to depart this world. Others did not want their enemies exhuming and desecrating their buried bodies, hence cremation was a functional resolution.

In prehistoricEuropecremation was popular. So too In many of the mission Indians of California cremation was universal. The corpse was burned upon a funeral pyre immediately after death, together with the personal property, by a man specially appointed to that duty; the bones afterwards were gathered up and buried or otherwise preserved. An annual mourning ceremony was held, to which all the neighbouring peoples were invited. On this occasion large quantities of property were burned as sacrifice to the spirits of the dead, or given away to the visitors; an effigy of the deceased was burned upon the  pyre, and the performance, which lasted through several days and nights, concluded with a weird night dance around the blazing pile, during which an eagle or other great bird, passed from one to another of the circling dance priests, was slowly pressed to death in their arms, while in songs they implored its spirit to carry their messages to their friends in the other world.

History reveals no trace of the custom of cremation among the Jewish people, except in extraordinary circumstances of war and pestilence. It was likewise unknown, in practice at least, to the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians; or to the inhabitants of Asia Minor– the Carians, Lydians, and Phrygians. The Greeks and Romans varied in their practice according to their views of the after life; those who believed in a future existence analogous to the present buried their dead, even leaving food in the tomb, or burial location, for the nourishment and enjoyment of the departed. On the other hand, others held the opinion that on the decay of the body life was continued in the shade or image, practiced cremation, the more expeditiously to speed the dead to the land of shadows. Owing in great part to the rapid progress of Christianity by the fifth century AD, the practice of cremation had entirely ceased among the Greeks and Romans.

The Christians never burned their dead. In times of persecution many risked their lives to recover the bodies of martyrs for the holy rites of Christian burial. The pagans, to destroy faith in the resurrection of the body, often cast the corpses of martyred Christians into the flames, fondly believing that they rendered impossible the resurrection of the body.

Thus, for one of a variety of reasons many societies strictly rejected the practice of cremation, just as the Christian Church has opposed it from the beginning as a custom, which has been used chiefly by the enemies of the Christian Faith; it was also considered undignified that the human body, once the living temple of God, should finally be subjected to a treatment that is judged as inhuman. The Egyptians were afraid of fire, not as a deity, but as a devouring element, mercilessly consuming their bodies, and leaving too little of them; and therefore by embalming, and deposition in dry earths the body could endure forever.

The Babylonians, according to Herodotus, embalmed their dead, and the Persians punished capitally those who attempted cremation, special regulations being followed for the purification of the fire so desecrated. Some societies including, North American Indian tribes allowed the bodies to decay

upon scaffolds, after which the bones were gathered up and deposited with ceremony in the common tribal grave or repository. The Choctaw scraped the flesh from the bones, which were then wrapped in a bundle, and placed in a box within the dwelling. Tree, scaffold, and cave burial were common on the plains and in the mountains, while cremation was the rule in the arid regions. The tradition of placing food near the grave for the spirit during the passage to the other world was common. Slashing of the body, cutting off of the hair, general neglect of the person, and ceremonial wailing, morning and evening, sometimes for weeks, were also parts of North American aboriginal funeral customs.

Human religious ritual is probably one of the most basic of all human activities, and still it is one of the most difficult to identify archaeologically. The traditional procedures of the ritual associated with the cremation at Kilbane are a mystery, apart from the actual cremation process itself.

Another custom, that of watching by the dead (the wake), is thought to be pagan in origin. The  Christians adopted it and chanted psalms to Christianize it. In medieval times, the monastic orders appointed relays of monks to succeed one another looking over the corpse so that it should never be left without prayer. So too in prehistoric times the burning corpse may have had to be watched for a certain number of hours and perhaps the very fragmented cremated bones, as seen at Kilbane, is evidence of continual presence at the pyre, by regular stoking the hot fires which would also serve to keep the fire burning.

THE CREMATION PROCEDURES AT KILBANE.

At Kilbane the occurrence of well-cremated bone shows that the practice of cremation was a long held tradition in this area. The cremated remains from Kilbane are of a sufficient size to make identification into bone type possible for a large percentage of the deposits. It was also possible to acquire other types of information such as numbers of individuals, general ages for these subjects and identification of sex for a number of people. Pathology was also evident.

The process of cremation is one of dehydration, and oxidation of the organic components of the body. Dehydration of the bone assists in its liability to fragment. Shrinkage and deformation of the bone also takes place. Most fragments are Kilbane are white in colour, indicating that during the firing process temperatures rose above 800 degrees C. A small number of fragments are blue, coal black or grey. This coloration occurs during the routine firing process of a well-fired body, when the affected bones are exposed to less time at the higher temperatures than the white bone; this may have resulted in areas of the body covered by greater amounts of soft tissue or when this bone was at the periphery of the funeral pyre. In many of the contexts at Kilbane some of the bones are blue/black in colour.Other factors which are responsible for this bone discoloration during cremation, include the age and structure of the cremated individual. The white colour of the well-fired bones would also indicate that bones had shrunk by twenty five per cent of their original size during incineration, when temperatures reached 700 degrees C.  The bones at this stage would also be very fragmentary and small. Transverse fracture lines are evident on many of the bone fragments from Kilbane, as well as irregular lengthwise splitting and warping of bone; these are typical characteristics of bone, which is burned when covered with flesh; during burning the bone explodes along the lines of least resistance.

The total weight of bone in these assemblages at Kilbane is 4247g. The greatest weight of bone (836g) is evident in Context 120, Area 1 while the smallest weight (1g) is seen in Context 174, Area 2, and in Context 356, Area 2. As the average weight of a modern adult cremation varies between 1600g-3600g then between a maximum of 16.50kg and a minimum of 7.1kg is missing from the burial deposits in total, if forty seven individuals of mature age are represented; this missing weight does not include the small amounts of bone representing the younger juveniles, aged under ten years. Few bones represent the three youngest individuals, this is due to the fact that their smaller and more fragile bones probably vanished during the firing process; this is typical in a routine cremation where the corpse of an infant may completely disappear.

There are a number of factors, which could be responsible for this loss: post burial loss due to the disturbance of the burials, differential burial where the cremations are deposited in a few burial locations. The amount of cremated bone, which is missing is large and it would have seemed unlikely to have lost such an amount after the burning and before the burial, in particular since so much care and reverence was taken in the funerary ritual at Kilbane, evidenced in the thoroughness of the cremation process, the deposition of burials in the numerous pits and the inclusion of one burial within a hand crafted pot. The entire corpse was probably burned because in all deposits, even the smallest in weight, all or large parts of the skeletal elements are represented in each burial deposit ruling out differential burning of the corpse(s) and hence the absence of some of the skeleton.

The most likely scenario is that the missing bone was placed as part of the ritual for the deceased in another location; archaeologically no such burial deposits containing a mix of such large amounts of cremated bone has been uncovered for the bronze age period. One possibility is that the missing   cremated remains were placed in the nearby river or lake, to a deity. Even concerning the mixed cremated deposits excavated at the passage tomb at Knowth (and examined by the author), there were large amounts of cremated bone missing, and here too, deposits may have been placed in the Boyne river to the goddess associated with the river. These would have scattered easily in the water or sunk into the silts at the river bottom.

The largest fragment of bone is 6.6cm, for a femoral shaft, located in Context 269, Area 2 while the smallest size are the numerous minute specks of bone in most deposits. The average size of fragments in each Area is 2cm. The smallest fragment in each deposit is a mere speck of bone; numerous examples of these occur. As well as incineration, fragmentation would also result from regular stoking of the bones while on the funeral pyre. Other causes include carrying the hot and brittle bones from the pyre to the burial place, and the eventual excavation and removal of the fragile bones.

Each burial deposit contains a wide range of the anatomical parts of the skeleton, though not necessarily all of the skeletal elements. All parts of the body of the adult skeleton are represented in many of the deposits though sometimes only small portions; these parts include the skull, spine, shoulders, rib cage, arms, hips and legs; this indicates that a complete corpse was burned during the cremation process, and a range of elements placed within the burial pit, whether parts chosen intentionally or fortuitously can not be established.

THE FUNERARY URN

The cremated contents of the funerary urn were excavated in three layers, in order to determine if there was a specific order in which the bones had been placed in the urn, whether it be related to parts of the one individual, or a number of individuals, either human or faunal etc.

Basal layer within pot.

This layer consisted of 2-3cm in depth of cremated bone deposit; it is the first layer of cremated bone, which was placed into the urn. The remains consist of a large part of the right pelvis (hip), small fragments of lumbar and sacral vertebrae, small fragments of the lower limb bones around the knee joints, a wisdom tooth and a fragment of base of the skull. The bone in this deposit is very friable, although cremated it has the appearance of unburnt bone (white

cortex with cream-coloured cancellous bone); the bone may not have been cremated for as many hours as typical cremated bone, perhaps simply because it was rained upon. Other cremated deposits, which were found within pots and which the author has examined, do not have the appearance of that from Kilbane.

Middle layer within pot

This cremated bone layer is 2cm in thickness. This bone has similar preservation qualities to that in the basal layer.  The remains consist of parts of a mandible, a tooth, some ribs, an arm bone, a hand bone, the thigh and shin bones.

Upper layer within pot

This layer of cremated bone is 3cm thick. This bone has similar preservation qualities to that in the other layers.  These bone fragments consist of the following: a cranial fragment, some ribs, hand bones, some thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, lower limbs, and some foot bones.

Miscellaneous bones from within the pot.

These bone fragments are friable and of similar preservation qualities to that in the other layers within the pot. The remains consist of part of the face, the mandible, some teeth, some ribs, arm, some vertebrae and sacrum fragments, the ventral parts of the hips, parts of the lower limbs, and foot bones.

Summary

The cremated bone from the funerary vessel (F366, Bone 27 & F365, Bone 57) is representative of the remains of one individual, who was aged in the mid to late teens; the remains which were deposited outside the pot (F365, Bone 56) also consisted of those of an individual aged in the late teens, and it could well be the same person who was placed within and around the pot, or there may be two persons involved; the remains of a neonate were found also in the deposit outside the pot (F365, Bone 56). It was not possible to determine the sex of the older individual, and if it were the parent or brother or grandmother etc of the new born infant.

It would appear from the deposition of the cremated bones within the funerary vessel that one of the largest bones from the skeleton (the pelvis) was placed into the vessel first probably because it was large and simply an easy bone to collect first from the funeral pyre, where the corpse lay on the ground in its correct anatomical position. More of the lower half of the body (from the hip to the shins) was at the same time placed first in the funerary vessel. The rest of the large limb bones (lower and upper limbs) were next placed in the vessel. Finally the smaller fragments that were left all over the pyre and those of the upper body were finally collected and placed in the funerary vessel, which was placed near the recently cremated person. The remains outside the pot (Context 365, Bone 56) consisted of small bones such as those of the hands and feet, as well as a large part of the dentition; this is also indicative of the small bones being the last leftover fragments to be collected and perhaps scattered around the funerary vessel.

The pyre site could have been located near the burial place or at a considerable distance; the cremation within the ceramic vessel would have been sufficiently heavy to think that the distance which the vessel was carried was short; however carrying such a heavy vessel would not have been considerable if done for a ritualistic, cultural or familial reason; nevertheless since the bones (when cooled or warm) were hand picked from the pyre and carried to the funerary urn, it indicates that no intermediary vessel (ceramic, basket etc) was used to bring the bones from the pyre to the urn. Some ceremony probably took place at the bone collection time ie. chanting, dancing etc.

RECONSTRUCTING THE KILBANE DEMOGRAPHY

The presence of a cemetery of this size in the Bronze Age indicates that great reverence and dignity was given to the deceased as well as the belief in an after life. Social stratification was part of society in some form as mature individuals were primarily buried separately, and all juveniles evident were buried with a mature person, perhaps to be taken care of on their journey into the hereafter. Accordingly, there is evidence of differential burial for adults/adolescents and juveniles.

There does not appear to be any relationship between the location of the burial deposits and the demography (age, sex, disease etc) of those buried within the pits. Juveniles are buried with mature individuals. Pottery was associated with two burial pits: Context 126, Area 1 and Context 365, Area 2; perhaps special people though more likely all persons were placed in funerary vessels and they have not survived in the ground due to environmental conditions. The pottery sherds, which have survived are poorly preserved.

The number of pits with cremated bone deposits totalled fifty three. The pit, which contained the funerary vessel may have yielded one or two individuals aged in the mid to late teens, and a neonate, while three other deposits held two individuals, an adult and a juvenile (under the age of fourteen years). If each burial pit (fifty one) represents a token deposit, whether large or small, of a deceased person, then the total number of individuals in this cemetery group is fifty four individuals (including the juveniles).  Adolescents identified in two burial pits (Context 342, Area 2 & Context 344, Area 2) do not seem to share their burial location with any other individual. The adolescent, aged ten to fourteen, does share a burial pit (Context 114, Area 1); this might suggest that when one had reached puberty, then one was sufficiently mature, and had reached womanhood/manhood, to possess a burial pit for oneself, and was able to make their way into the after life on their own. Most societies had an initiation process for the transition to puberty, and as it was recognised in life so too it probably had significance in death and the next world.

In total there are eight individuals aged under twenty: five in the teens, two aged between seven and ten and one newborn infant.If one uses the minimum number of diagnostic bones to determine the number of people in this demographic group, then using the numbers of odontoid processes of the cervical vertebrae (one in each skeleton), there would only be six persons from Kilbane represented. From the numbers of petrous portions (two in each person) of the temporal bone, a number of between eight to twelve individuals are present. This would indicate that each cremated corpse was spread among different burial pits. However, this hypothesis could be ruled out because most pits, even those with small amounts of cremated bone, contains skeletal parts from a wide range of skeletal elements.

The lack of sexually diagnostic bone remains meant that only three individuals could be sexed: Context 115, Area 1; Context 126, Area 1; Context 136, Area 1; these were sexed using the following diagnostic criteria: the temporal bone, the nuchal crest of the occipital, and the pronounced superciliary ridge of the frontal bone. These individuals are probably male; the male skeleton has more obvious diagnostic criteria for sex identification than the female, depending on the part of the skeleton involved. Hence there is a slight bias in male identification at Kilbane.

Although the cremated remains are very fragmented one anatomical variation and four subjects with pathological conditions were identified. The anatomical variation is evident in Context 86, Area 6 and is called a Wormian Bone, and occurs on the occipital bone. This type of extra bone is referred to as an ossicle or sutural bone and is most commonly interposed between the lambdoid suture (between the parietal and occipital bones), though its occurrence on other sutures is known. These irregular ossicles have a tendency to be symmetrical on the two sides of the skull. They vary in size from a pinhead to the size of an occipital bone. Wormian bones may be a dominant genetic trait.

Degenerative joint disease is the most common of all joint diseases. A major factor in its development is ‘wear and tear’, as well as its progression due to ageing. The spine is the most severely affected. The early stages of degenerative changes consist of degeneration of the articular cartilage followed by compensatory bone proliferation. This proliferation of bone is referred to as osteophytosis, or bony lipping, and forms along the joint margins. Osteoarthritis refers to loss of bone substance and is evident as porosis of the bone, sometimes with eburnation and underlying cystic activity. Osteophytosis is evident in three individuals: Context 344, Area 2; Context 120, Area 1 and Context 136, Area 1. It occurs on the finger of one adolescent, on the spines of two adults and one of these latter individuals also has the condition on the elbow. This degenerative disease may have been caused by wear and tear during life, from daily chores and numerous strains resulting from these tasks. The individuals may have had physically demanding work, perhaps doing manual labour. The degenerative joint disease would have resulted in considerable pain, probably for some years prior to death.  However there are other aetiological factors, which could have been responsible for this disease including trauma, acquired joint disease, as well as other inflammatory, metabolic and congenital conditions.  It seems likely that the teenager with osteophytosis on the finger suffered from some physical trauma, resulting in the condition, and may have suffered from this when doing a chore or when involved in some other physical activity. In one male the condition affects an elbow joint as well as the spine; again trauma or routine chores may have resulted in this condition in two areas of the skeleton.  In the third person with the condition at least two vertebrae (included one lumbar) are affected; one of these vertebrae also ahs osteoarthritis in the form of porosis.

Herniated discs resulting in Schmorl’s nodes are evident (Context 269, Area 2) on the back of one person aged in their twenties. Their presence would indicate the occurrence of severe strains to the mid thoracic spine, perhaps from a wrench to the back. This cavity or disc herniation results from expansion of the nucleus pulposus, the partially liquid central portion of the intervertebral disc. They result from degenerative disc disease, from trauma from such activities as a fall from a height, heavy lifting, trauma during physical exercises.

Non-specific infection affected the man in Context 126, Area 1; the shafts of the femur and tibia displayed . This inflammation of the periosteum is most often caused by infection or trauma (a blow to the leg perhaps), though it is not possible to determine which of the two is responsible in this case.

A MODERN CREMATORIUM, WITH BURIALS AND MEMORIALS IN THE GARDENS.

 

 

INVENTORY OF CREMATED BONE FROM KILBANE

CONTEXT 120: Area 1

Bone: 13

Weight: 836g.  Colour: white

Largest: 5cm (shaft of tibia).  Average Size of Fragments: 2cm

Number of Individuals: One mature adult.

232g: three hundred and twenty three fragments of skull: temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal, sphenoid, nasal bones; the margin of the left and right (two fragments) orbits; the left temperomandibular fossa; the right condylar process; the right coracoid process; eight other fragments of the mandibular body include the gonial angle, and two fragments containing three sockets on each fragment; and fragments containing one right resorbed molar, and one left resorbed molar; five fragments of two petrous portions of temporal (right and  left); two  mandibular molars – two roots and fused; five other tooth fragments (at least  a minimum of two single-rooted teeth and one possible maxillary premolar).

22g: eleven upper limb fragments, and twelve ulnar and radial shaft fragments.

31g: sixty one rib fragments representing four left and five right (one with a head); the glenoid fossa of the left scapula; seven shaft fragments of the humerus and two fragments of the trochlea of the distal joint and a possible head fragment; three fragments of the iliac crest of the pelvis.

Lower limbs: 130g: 30 fragments of lower limb; four fragments of fibula shaft; fifteen femoral shaft fragments including three of the distal articulation (condyles) and three femoral head fragments; forty four tibial fragments including that of the shaft and the articulations and tuberosity.

Three hundred and eighty five fragments of unidentifiable long bone (164g)

45g: one hundred and fifty five vertebral fragments, mostly minute: a minimum of three cervical, two thoracic, four lumbar and one sacral:

parts of the bodies of three cervical (also left part of a body,) one superior left articular process, two cervical transverse (left) processes with superior and inferior facets;

five thoracic articular processes; two inferior articular left processes, and one right; one spinous process and part of the body with mild osteophytes on the inferior surface of an upper thoracic;

Two transverse processes, five inferior articular processes, and one articular process of lumbar vertebrae; severe osteophytes and  porosis   are evident on two lumbar articular facets.

The fifth segment of the sacrum.

56g : fifty four fragments of hand/foot bones: four proximal hand phalanges (two/three fingers); one proximal hand phalanx; the base of a second metacarpal (left); the head of a metacarpal; the bases of the first metacarpal (left and right); the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb (left); the right proximal phalanx (thumb); the distal phalanx of the small finger, right; the shafts of seventeen metacarpals/metatarsals; one medial phalanx of the hand; the right lunate and triquetral carpals of the hand; two middle and one distal phalanges of the foot; the base of the first metatarsal and two other metatarsals; nine shafts of phalanges of the hand/foot; the head of a metacarpal/metatarsal; the head of a metatarsal; the left navicular,  three cuneiforms and two possible fragment of the talus.

75g: eighty-five articular facets from foot/hand bones and other joint surfaces, though many remain unidentifiable.

Unidentifiable bone: 66g

CONTEXT 153: Area 2

Bone 13

Weight: 50g. Colour: white.

Largest fragment: 6cm (femur). Average size: 2.5cm.

Number of Individuals: one mature adult and one child, aged four to eight years

23g: Skull including parietals, frontal, and a possible fragment of the mental protuberance of the mandible.

Four fragments of rib (including one head), representing at least two ribs.

One vertebral fragment;

One possible fragment of the ischium or public bone.

11g: forty fragments of lower limb long bones.

15g: the posterior surface of the distal end of the femoral shaft (6cm), and five other fragments of femur.

Six unidentifiable articulation/joint surfaces: one of these probably belongs to a child aged between four to eight years, possibly a humerus or femur.

3g: twenty six unidentifiable fragments

CONTEXT 154: Area 2

Bone: 18

Weight: 5g. Colour: white and charcoal stained (marrow cavities are black)

Average size: 1-2cm (cranial).

Minimum Number of Individuals: one mature adult.

Nine fragments, including two cranial and one possible scapular fragment.

Five long bone fragments, probably metacarpal/metatarsal shaft fragments.

One fragment of rib.

CONTEXT 115: Area 1

Bone 11

Weight: 4g.

Largest fragment: 3.7cm (skull). Average size: 2cm.

Minimum Number of Individuals: one mature adult male.

Six cranial fragments, probably male as the occipital bone with the nuchal crest of the external protuberance is very pronounced.

Twenty long bone fragments.

Seventeen minute unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 16: Area 5

Bone 63 (Disturbed pit).

Weight: 5g.

Colour: white. Average size: 2cm.

Minimum Number of Individuals: one mature adult.

Two cranial fragments.

One large odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra, and a fragment of the body of a cervical vertebra (fifth to seventh).

One fragment of the shaft of a fibula.

One fragment of the shaft of a radius.

CONTEXT 114: Area 1

Bone: 12

Weight:   90gm.        Colour: white.

Largest fragment: 5.7cm.     Average size: 1-2cm

Minimum Number of Individuals: one child aged between ten years to fourteen years, and one mature adult.

10g: twenty eight cranial fragments probably belonging to a child; one socket of a maxilla (possibly a child); adult skull include the following: one fragment of right petrous portion of temporal bone; other fragments of temporal bones and parietals.

One fragment of the axillary border of a scapula. One rib fragment.

4g: four fragments of the humeral shaft.  One left pubic bone fragment.

20gm: sixteen fragments of lower limb (tibia and femur).

6gm: small fragments of articular/joint surfaces

The condylar surface of the proximal end (unfused) of a tibia, and

the unfused condyles of the articular surface of the femur, both probably belonging to a child aged between ten years to fourteen years.

40gm of unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 86: Area 6

Bone 59

Weight: 250g.           Colour: white.

Largest fragment: 5.2cm (tibial shaft). Average size of fragments: 2cm

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Seventy three skull fragments – seventy of the cranium and  two mandibular, including the temporal, frontal, occipital, four fragments of orbits (the right: supraorbital crest and two fragments of the left; a fragment of the mandibular body and the right of ramus containing the coronoid and condylar processes;

Skull: including mandible, one orbit, and two teeth: the root of a maxillary molar, and the root of a single rooted tooth (lower incisor).

One possible wormian bone on the occipital.

A fragment of the distal radial shaft. Two fragments of the proximal shaft of the left ulna. The axillary border of a scapula and the acromion of the left scapula; two shaft fragments of the clavicle. Twenty seven rib fragments.

Hand: the distal phalanx of a middle finger, the shaft of a metacarpal, fragments of two carpals, eleven fragments of shafts of metacarpals and phalanges, and two shafts proximal phalanges.

Twenty one fragments of vertebrae, three fragments from bodies, six of articular processes (a minimum of one lumbar, and one thoracic), and one spinous process. Seven fragments of the ilium of the pelvis, three of these are from the crest.

Seven fragments of femoral shaft (including fragments containing the linea aspera); six  tibial fragments: four (two of one fragment) of the shaft including three of the anterior crest and two fragments of condyles from the proximal end; two fragments of fibula shaft.

One fragment of the heal of the calcaneous of the foot.

40g: unidentifiable fragments, including several tiny fragments of articular ends (probably from facets on vertebrae or extremities).

One hundred and one unidentifiable long bones

CONTEXT 88: Area 4

Bone 61

Weight: 6g.    Colour: white.

Largest fragment: 2.25cm. Average size of fragments: 1cm.

Minimum number of individuals: 1.

Eighteen cranial fragments, including a possible maxillary fragment with one socket of a tooth, and the tip of a petrous portion of a temporal bone.

Four rib fragments and six long bone fragments.

Fifty six unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 101 and  CONTEXT 105: Area 1

Sample Number 3

Mixed sample from both contexts.

Weight: 20g.                          Colour: white

Largest fragment: 4cm.       Average size of fragments: 2cm

Forty five cranial fragments, including an orbit, and frontal, and parietal fragments.

Two fragments of rib shaft. One fragment of the distal articulation of the humerus (trochlea).  The shaft of the proximal phalanx of the hand. Two articular fragments, possibly two carpals

One fragment fibula shaft and one shaft of a medial phalanx of the foot.

Thirteen long bone fragments.

Twenty six unidentifiable fragments

CONTEXT 101: Area 1

Bone: 10

Weight: 100g.           Colour: white/brown/black./blue

Average size of fragments: 2cm.   Largest fragment: 3.9cm (left temporal) and part of petrous portion.

Minimum number of individuals: 1.

50g: one hundred thirty seven cranial fragments: fragments of parietal and left temporal, the supraorbital crest of left orbit, and fragments of the nasal, sphenoid, and frontal; one root of a molar tooth in two fragments.

One fragment of the body of a vertebra. Six rib fragments. Shaft fragments of the distal radius. Two ulnar shafts fragments: the proximal of one and the midshaft of the right ulna. One joint surface of the proximal ulna. Articular surfaces from four small joints such as extremities, and six of hand bones. Three long bones of extremities; four hand phalange fragments.

The articular surface of the femoral condyle. The proximal articulation of the condyle of a tibia.  One shaft fragment from each of the following: femur and the fibula. Ten fragments of the tibial shaft. The basal parts (second or third toe, and the fourth or fifth) of two metatarsals. The talus containing the articular surface for calcaneous, and the articular surface of a tarsal of the foot. Blue specks discoloration on foot bones.

Two articular/joint surfaces

10g: sixty long bones fragments.

10g: minute unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 105: Area 1

Bone: 4

Weight:150g.                        Colour: white/some buff./blue.

Largest bone fragment: 4.2cm. Average size of fragment: 1-2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: 1.

50g: cranial fragments including the parietal and occipital fragments (tinged blue), a possible right petrous portion of the temporal bone, a fragment of a maxillary socket.

Nine shaft fragments of the ulna or radius. A fragment of the distal articulation (trochlea) of a humerus, and a humeral head. A clavicular shaft.

Seven rib fragments. The body of a cervical vertebra (possibly a cervical third to cervical sixth). Two Inferior articular processes of cervical vertebrae, one from a left.

Two fragments of the proximal shaft of the femur. Three tibial shaft fragments.

SIxteen long bone fragments from extremities.

Six fragments of articular/joint facets.

43g: seventy two fragments of unidentifiable long bone fragments.

25g of unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 109: Area 1

Bone: 1

(also sherd of pottery)

Largest bone fragment: 3cm (temporal bone).  Average size of fragments:  2g.

Weight: 38g.              Colour: white

Minimum number of individuals:  one mature adult.

20g: twenty eight cranial fragments including two parietal, three frontal, two fragments of petrous portion of the left temporal, two other temporal fragments three occipital fragments; two mandibular body fragments including the left body containing two sockets, and one tooth root, possibly a mandibular canine.

Three rib shaft fragments including the sternal end of the left rib. The acromion of a scapula (possibly left). The articulating surface, possibly the head of a humerus.  A possible shaft of a metacarpal of the hand. A fragment of the rim of the acetabulum of the pelvis.

Two articulation/joint surfaces: one of the proximal end of the fibula or of the distal end of the radius.

Eleven long bone fragments.

Twenty six unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 126: Area 1

Bone 15

Largest bone: 2cm.  Average size of fragments: 2cm.

Weight: 450g.           Colour: white

Minimum number of individuals: two: one mature adult, possibly male, and one child aged 7-10 years.

60g: one hundred and ninety six cranial fragments: five are temporal, three parietal, four frontal and two occipital; the right orbit; three fragments from the prominent nuchal crest of the occipital. Six alveolar sockets from both halves of the mandible.

11g: the head of a humerus and a fragment of the shaft. A fragment of the olecranon of the proximal end of an ulna and a fragment of the distal shaft. One possible shaft of a metacarpal and a fragment of a medial hand phalanx. 38g: twenty-six rib fragments representing at least two left and one right.

5g: a minimum of one cervical and two thoracic vertebrae: the second cervical vertebra, a fragment of a spinous process, three transverse processes from the thoracic vertebrae, three fragments from the vertebral body, two thoracic articular facets.

5g: fragment of the ilium of the pelvis. A possible right patella.

185g: thirty five femoral shaft fragment from the left and right elements. Eighteen fragments of the tibial shaft, including the tuberosity of an anterior fragment. Non-specific infection is evident in the from of striated bone on femoral and tibial fragments.

1g: the left pubic bone of a child aged circa eight to ten years; the transverse process of a vertebra and part of a sacral body of a child aged seven to ten years.

72g: two hundred and eighty seven unidentifiable long bone fragments.

60g: forty eight articular surface fragments; one hundred and twenty three unidentifiable bone fragments.

CONTACT 136

Bone 16

Weight: 400g.           Colour : white/grey

Largest bone fragment: 2cm (femur).       Average size of fragment: 1-2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult male.

195g: two hundred and seventeen fragments from the cranium including large parts of the temporal, frontal, parietal bones, the orbits, malars and one fragment from the chin of a mandible; a fragment of a superciliary ridge on the frontal bone is prominent and suggestive of a male; six fragments of the mandible including one of the condylar process, one of the right body, one of the right mandible containing the three sockets and one of the left mandibular body containing the mandibular left first five teeth (from the central incisor through to the second premolar); a fragment of the crown, of a tooth; the root of a possible mandibular molar; three maxillary fragments containing tooth sockets, one of these contains the following: the left maxillary incisors and the left canine.

10g: a minimum number of two cervical and one thoracic vertebrae: the body of the second cervical vertebra containing the odontoid process; one fragment from a cervical vertebra; the left half of the body of a central thoracic vertebra; the body of the hyoid bone.

50g: one possible clavicular shaft fragment; the glenoid fossa and a fragment of the spine of the right scapula; a fragment of the acromion of the scapula; four other fragments from the scapula including one of the axillary border.

60g: a fragment of the posterior surface of the distal shaft of the right humerus, containing the olecranon depression; parts of the trochlea of the humerii; the mid shaft of the right ulna; the distal end of the left ulna containing the head and styloid process; one fragment from the shaft of a radius; two proximal hand phalanges; eleven rib fragments including two heads from left ribs and one from a right rib.

10g: eight articular processes from thoracic vertebrae and the spinous process of an upper thoracic vertebra. Seven other vertebral fragments including those from two bodies; four articular processes from lumbar vertebrae; parts of five sacral bodies, including the bodies of the fifth and two others.

One fragment of the iliac crest, one fragment of the ischium, three pubic bone fragments and one from an acetabulum; seventeen fragments from articular/joint surfaces such as hand/ foot, and shoulder/hip joints.

65g: two fragments of the posterior surface of the right femoral shaft containing the linea aspera, and a fragment also of the left femur. Three fragments from one piece of bone from the posterior surface of the mid shaft of the left femur; seventeen other fragments of the femur; the anterior surface of the shaft of the tibia containing the tuberosity. Six fragments from the tibial shaft including one from the anterior surface of the midshaft.

20g: hands/feet: two fragments from the head of a talus, including one from the right. The heads of two metatarsals and the shafts of five. A middle of the foot; four shaft fragments from metacarpals/metatarsals.

110g: one hundred and ninety seven fragments from unidentifiable long bones.

50g: three hundred and eighty seven fragments of unidentifiable bone.

Pathology.

Mild osteophytosis is evident on the margin of the distal end of the left ulna.

Mild osteohytes occur on the superior surface of the body of the second cervical vertebra containing the odontoid process, on the margin of the inferior surface of the body of a cervical vertebra; on the surface of the body of the central thoracic vertebra and on the superior surface of the first sacral body and on the posterior surface of a lower sacral body.

CONTEXT 163: Area 2

Bone 19

Weight: 3g.                Colour: white and some charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 1.8cm (large long bone).

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Fourteen bone fragments, including seven longbone (including two large long bone) fragments.

CONTEXT 165: Area 2

Bone 21

Weight : 23g.             Colour: white and some charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 5.1cm (anterior crest of the tibia)

Average size of fragments: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Sixty-six fragments, including forty-six from long bones, most from the tibia, and five cranial (five probably fragments from piteous portion of temporal) fragments.

CONTEXT 166: Area 2

Bone 23

Weight: 31g.              Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 4.05cm (femur).  Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Fifty three bone fragments: thirteen cranial fragments including occipital and parietal; nine fragments of femur/tibia including: one femoral shaft (including the linear aspera) and two tibial shaft fragments.

Twenty unidentifiable long bone fragments.

CONTEXT 174: Area 2

Bone 27

Weight: 1g.                Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one.

Four long bone fragments and one large bone such as femur/tibia.

CONTEXT 177: Area 2

Bone 25

Weight: 6g                 Colour: white/some charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 1.9cm (long bone). Average size of fragment:

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Twenty nine fragments including five skull fragments; fifteen longbone fragments; and one possible clavicle shaft.

Faunal (small animal) bones present.

CONTEXT 179: Area 2

Bone 24

Weight: 2g.    Colour: white with charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 1.5cm.      Average size of fragments 1-2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Thirty three tiny fragments including four cranial, seven long bone and two unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 180: Area 2

Bone 26

Weight: 11g.              Colour: white and charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment:2.8cm (long bone).

Average size of fragments:2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one.

Thirty fragments including forty cranial, one possible vertebral facet from the mid to lower thoracic vertebrae, and one fragment of a long bone (femur/tibia);

six unidentifiable long bone fragments.

CONTEXT 193: Area 2

Bone 28

Weight: 11g.              Colour: white and charcoal staining

Largest bone fragment: 3.1cm (large long bone, probably femur).

Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Thirty five fragments, including nineteen from long bones, one is femoral fragment and one a possible tibial shaft; the rest are minute unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 203: Area 2

Bone 29

Weight: 5g.                Colour: white with charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 2.6cm.      Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Seven fragments including four fragments of one part of a rib.

CONTEXT 218: Area 2

Bone: 30

Weight: 5g.                Colour: white with charcoal staining

Largest bone fragment: 1.2cm.      Average size of fragment: 1cm

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Twenty one bone fragments including fourteen cranial and two long bone fragments.

CONTEXT 220: Area 2

?

Weight: 4g                 Colour: white with some charcoal staining/blue/grey.

Largest bone fragment: 1.4cm (fibula).    Average size of fragment: 1cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Fourteen bone fragments including, two fibula fragments (from one piece, internally blue/grey, 1.4cm in length); and four lone bone fragments.

CONTEXT 223: Area 2

Bone 33

Weight : 22g  .                       Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 3.14cm.    Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Fourteen bone fragments including twelve cranial, all probably from temporal and adjoining parts of the occipital bone (two definite occipital fragments), and

Two fragments of the left petrous portion of the temporal bone (large suggestive of a male), and five belonging to the two petrous portions; and two long bone fragments.

CONTEXT 249: Area 2

Bone 32

Weight: 79g.              Colour: white/grey, small amount of charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 4.3cm (fibula).    Average size of fragments:2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Two hundred and forty six fragments, including thirty three skull fragments. Eight fragments of rib shaft. One fragment of shaft from the radius/ulna, and one possible distal shaft fragment from the radius. A possible fragment of a carpal (grey/blue).

The ilium of the pelvis, containing the sciatic notch. Six fragments of the fibular shaft.  A possible right talus: the joint surface for the calcaneous.

One hundred and eighteen long bone fragments.

Seventy six unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 252: Area 2

Bone 34

Weight: 4g.    Colour: white, some with charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.         Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Seven fragments of bone including four of the cranium, and one of a long bone.

CONTEXT 263: Area 2

Bone 39

Weight: 39g.              Colour:  white, and a few grey/blue.

Largest bone fragment: 4.25cm (femur/tibia). Average size of fragments: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Sixty seven fragments: ten cranial fragments including three parietal. The odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra. One rib fragment. Long bone fragments include five femoral (two containing linear aspere); thirty nine include ten of large long bones (femur/tibia) and ten of small long bone;

articular foot bone.

Several unidentifiable specks of bone.

CONTEXT 264:

Bone 38

Weight: 12g.              Colour:  white.

Largest bone fragment: 2.9cm (long bone). Average size of fragments: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Two cranial fragments. Nineteen long bone fragments (including three of small long bones). One rib fragment.

Several unidentifiable minute fragments.

CONTEXT 269: Area 2 (not on inventory list)

Soil Sample 36

Weight: 260g (100g are long bone).

Colour: white, and discoloured black/grey from the deposit from which it had been discovered.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.         Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one adult aged circa twenty years.

50g: thirty-three cranial fragments, of these twelve are temporal, five are parietal and two are occipital; one sphenoid fragment and one fragment from each petrous portion of the temporals; two possible fragments from the mandibular body and a third fragment containing a tooth socket.

8g: a minimum of ten vertebrae, six cervical, two thoracic, one lumbar and one sacral: the anterior surface of the first cervical vertebra, containing the articulation for the odontoid process of the first cervical vertebra. Part of the body and left transverse process of a cervical vertebra. Parts of four bodies of cervical vertebrae.  A spinous process of a cervical vertebra. A spinous process of one thoracic vertebra and one lumbar vertebra. Three inferior articular processes (including one thoracic and one lumbar). One central thoracic vertebra, possibly the eighth. Two possible arches of central thoracic vertebrae. Part of the superior surface of the first sacral body. Fifteen rib fragments (3g).

5g: two fragments from the distal end of the right humerus containing the trochlea, and six shaft fragments. Five fragments from the shaft of the radius or ulna. Fragments of three shafts from hand phalanges. The shafts of two metacarpals or metatarsals. The shaft of a distal phalanx of the hand from a second or third finger.

7g: three phalanges from the hand or foot, and the head of a metacarpal or metatarsal.

One possible fragment from the pubic bone. Twelve fragments from the femoral shaft. Twelve fragments from the tibiae including one proximal

articulation and one distal articulation. Six fibular fragments including the distal end containing the malleolus (possibly recently fused).

Nineteen fragments from articulation/ joint surfaces, most are small and probably belong to hand and foot bones (0.5g).

Forty-five fragments of long bones from the lower limbs.

Seventy-four unidentifiable long bone fragments.

Thirty-two fragments of unidentifiable bone (10g).

Pathology.

The possible eighth thoracic vertebra has Schmorl’s nodes on the superior and inferior surfaces of the body.

CONTEXT 269: Area 2

Bone 37

Weight: 127g.           Colour: white/grey with charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 6.6cm (femur shaft). Average size of fragment:

Minimum number of individuals:  one mature adult.

Eighty six bone fragments, including twenty three cranial: occipital, temporal, parietal, including the left glenoid fossa and  right tubercle of the zygomatic arch, and a fragment of petrous portion of temporal bone. Nine fragments of rib. Three (small ulna/radius bones) long bone fragments.

The superior articular facet of a lumbar vertebra, and a second articular facet possible lumbar. A fragment of the wing of the sacrum.  A fragment of the ilium of the right pelvis.

Twelve femoral fragments including the posterior surface of the shaft. An articular surface, the possible distal condyle of a femur. Five tibia fragments.

Twenty nine unidentifiable long bones fragments.

Three articular surfaces.

CONTEXT 274: Area 2

Bone 40

Weight: 6g

Colour: white but stained black from charcoal around it.

Largest bone fragment: 1.5cm.      Average size of fragment: 1cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Fifteen fragments, including three cranial, ten long bone, and possibly of the humeral shaft. One fragment of a small long bone.

CONTEXT 286: Area 2

Bone 42

Weight: 15g.              Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 3.7cm (Cranial). Average size of fragments: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Eleven bone fragments including the right humeral fragment of distal shaft and olecranon fossa, and three other long bones; seven fragments of the parietal of the cranium; and two probable fragments of one rib shaft.

One unidentifiable fragment.

CONTEXT 290: Area 2

Bone 41

Weight: 20g.              Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 2.38cm (cranial).  Average size of fragment: 2g.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Twenty fragments, including two cranial fragments (one including one parietal), and four long bone fragments.

CONTEXT 296: Area 2

Bone 44

Weight: 99g.              Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 3.2cm (long bone).  Average size of fragment: 1.5cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Two hundred and twenty six fragments of bone including, thirty one cranial fragments; the spinous process of one vertebra; one possible humeral shaft;  two radial heads; one fragment of the glenoid fossa of a scapula, and two fragments of scapular body. One possible fragment of a pubic bone, one of the iliac crest, two wings of the sacrum and one sacral body. Three fragments of the femoral shaft.

Fifty four long bone fragments.

Fifty six parts of articular surfaces (one possible carpal/tarsal).

Seven unidentifiable fragments.

CONTEXT 298: Area 2

Bone 43

Weight: 10g.              Colour: white, stained with charcoal.

Largest bone fragment: 2.7cm (occipital).  Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Eight cranial fragments, including three adjoining fragments (two occipital and one parietal), three other probable occipital fragments, and two other cranial fragments.

CONTEXT 310: Area 2

Bone 46

Weight: 56g.              Colour: white with charcoal staining

Largest bone fragment: 4.4cm (ischial fragment).

Average size of fragment: 1.5 cm.

Minimum number of individuals:  one mature adult.

Eighty seven fragments including thirty two cranial: the temporal, occipital, and frontal; one possible fragment of the proximal shaft of the ulna and one fragment of the humeral shaft; one fragment of rib shaft; one charred articular/joint of a vertebra, probably thoracic.

The left ischia (tuberosity) of the pelvis, part of sciatic notch of the ilium and a second ilium, one of the acetabula; several other fragments of the pelves are probably present

Twenty four unidentifiable (small) long bone fragments.

CONTEXT 311: Area 2

Bone sample 45

Weight: 32g.              Colour: white

Largest bone fragment: 2.75cm.    Average size of fragments: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals:  one mature adult.

One hundred and seventy nine fragments including twenty four cranial fragments including two fragments of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; one root of a tooth.

One articular surface, probably a carpal of the hand; forty three long bone fragments. One metacarpal/metatarsal fragment; one ulnar shaft fragment. Several small long bones: metacarpal/metatarsal and/or ulnar/radial.

One hundred and ten unidentifiable minute specks of bone.

CONTEXT 337: Area 2

Bone 49

Weight: 10g.              Colour: white

Largest bone fragment: 4.1cm (right ulna).

Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Twenty eight fragments of bone (and several minute), including seven long bone fragments probably from an ulna; an upper shaft fragment from the right ulna.

CONTEXT 339: Area 2

Bone 48

Weight: 10g.              Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 2.4cm.      Average size of fragment: 1cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Nineteen fragments of bone including one cranial fragment and eight long bone fragments.

CONTEXT 342: Area 2

Bone 50

Weight: 11g.              Colour: white with charcoal staining

Largest bone fragment: 3.6 cm (long bone).

Average size of bone fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one adolescent.

Eleven fragments, including seven cranial from the one piece of occipital bone; two fragments of one piece of distal shaft of the radius.

Possible adolescent (possible calcaneous foot bone or distal end femur); two unidentifiable fragments of calcaneous bone showing that the cancellous bone was not cremated, only charred.

CONTEXT 344: Area 2

Bone 55

Weight: 50g.              Colour: white/buff.

Largest bone fragment: 3.1cm (long bone). Average size of fragments:

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Seventy nine fragments of bone, including one cranial fragment, one possible shaft of a clavicle; forty nine long bone fragments of all sizes and several fragments of tibia (at least eleven); six rib fragments; one carpal of the hand, probably the pisiform, one hand phalanx (distal), one base of a metacarpal/metatarsal.

One distal articular surface.

One possible adolescent/child (aged ten to fifteen years) epiphysis from the distal end of the radius.

Pathology

One distal hand phalanx has mild osteophytosis at the base.

CONTEXT 347: Area 2

Bone 51

Weight: 1g.                Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 2.1cm.      Average size of fragment: 2.1cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

One possible shaft of a left ulna.

CONTEXT 356: Area 2

Bone 53

Weight: 1g.                Colour: white

Largest bone fragment: 5cm long bone. Average size of fragment: 2cm

Minimum number of individuals: one.

Two unidentifiable bone fragments, with blue internal discoloration; not possible to determine with certainty if these are human, could be faunal.

CONTEXT 357: Area 2

Bone 54

Weight: 14g.              Colour: White/buff with some charcoal staining.

Largest bone fragment: 3cm.         Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Twenty nine bone fragments (including some specks), including nineteen long bone fragments, several may be from the one bone (distal shaft of the tibia). One small long bone (fibula/ulna/radius).

CONTEXT 365: Area 2

Bone 57. From inside Pot

Weight: 23g.              Colour: white, and two blue fragments.

Poor preservation, friable bone.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.         Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Twenty three fragments of bone, including the following: a possible fragment of the gladiolus of the sternum (breast bone); one head from a probable first metacarpal; the inferior right articular facet and an inferior right articular facet of the vertebra.

The proximal end of the right tibia containing the articular surfaces, the epiphseal surface is evident; a fragment  of the distal articulation of a tibia and probably a second fragment of the same bone; a probable distal end of the articular surface of the femur.

Sixteen unidentifiable fragments of bone.

CONTEXT 365: Area 2

Bone 56. From outside Pot

Weight: 349g.

Colour: some white but a large portion is black/blue and very friable.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.         Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one individual aged between sixteen and twenty years, and a neonate (time of birth).

Ninety six fragments of the cranium (some are discoloured black), including three parietal, four occipital, and eleven temporal, the auditory meatus (blue and white) and pertrous portions of both temporal bones (blue); the glenoid fossae of the temporal and the orbits; the nasal spine (65g); the root of a molar tooth; three fused roots of a third mandibular molar (wisdom tooth); two

fragments of enamel including enamel probably from a wisdom tooth, which had remained unerupted and was probably cushioned in the alveolar bone of

the jaw; two fragments of enamel probably from two maxillary molars (first/second); enamel and a root from a maxillary first or second molar; the left maxilla containing the sockets of the central incisor through to the second premolar; a fragment of the right mandible containing the angle of the jaw; the left mandible containing the sockets from the canine through to the first molar.

The axillary border of the scapula; the coracoid process of the left scapula. A fragment of the manubrium of the sternum; a fragment also of the gladiolus.

Two articular facets of the thoracic vertebrae; one transverse process of a vertebra; three vertebral bodies (0.5g); a thoracic body, which is yellow in colour and displays a yellow colour; three fragments of the right humerus, including the distal end, the trochlea and part of the shaft; the head of the radius, which shows some partial epiphyseal fusion; the distal and proximal shaft of the left ulna (upper arm: 50g); an unfused distal phalanx of the first finger or thumb; the distal phalanx of the fifth finger; five medial phalanges including the base of one which remains unfused; two proximal phalanges (unfused base of one); six medial hand phalanges (two with unfused bases, black); one distal phalanx; sixty six rib fragments, representing at least three right (black) ribs and three left (100g).

One fragment of the ilium (0.1g); five femoral shaft fragments; one possible greater trochanter of the femur; four fragments of the posterior surface of the femur; one fragment of the posterior surface of the right femur; four fragments of the distal articulation and four of the proximal articulation (partially fused) of the tibia; four shaft fragments of the tibia and one of the tuberosity of the right tibia (tibia/femur: 41g); the styloid process of the proximal end of the fibula.

The navicular of the right foot and the head of the first metatarsal of the left foot; a fragment of the cuboid of the foot with an unfused epiphyseal plate; an internal cuneiform (black) (0.5g); one metacarpal/metatarsal.

One hundred and forty seven unidentifiable long bone fragments (three of these display unfused epiphyses).

Forty six articular surfaces, many are vertebrae (black, blue and grey) (22g).

One hundred and thirty four unidentifiable bone fragments.

A fragment possibly of the right maxilla containing two dental crypts, of a neonate.

CONTEXT 366

Bone 27. Funerary Urn

BASAL LAYER WITHIN THE POT

Weight: 58g.

Colour: beige/cream (does not give the appearance of cremated bone; appearance as organic bone, but cortex is white).

Largest bone fragment: 3cm.         Average size: 2cm; very friable.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

One fragment of the occipital bone of the cranium, at the lambda suture. Two fused roots of a third molar (wisdom tooth). One rib fragment. One unfused diaphysis (shaft) of the humerus. A blue fragment of the left superior articular process of the lumbar vertebra; a possible vertebral body fragment. One possible sacral body fragment; an articular process of the first sacral body.

The possible right iliac crest of the ilium; a fragment of the right acetabulum at the surface of the os pubis, which is unfused and suggestive of an age probably in the late teens; a fragment of the sciatic notch; a fragment of the right ilium adjacent to the auricular surface; another possible iliac fragment; a fragment of the right ischium containing the tuberosity, which is unfused and suggestive of an age probably in the late teens.

One fragment of the distal end of the femoral shaft and four condylar fragments; another shaft fragment. Two fragments of the distal articulation of the tibia.

Numerous fragments of unidentifiable flakes of bone.

MIDDLE LAYER (2CM) WITHIN THE POT

Weight: 130g.           Colour: white with some blue; very friable bone.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.         Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

One root of a molar tooth. The condyles of the mandible and the ramus of the right. Nine rib fragments. The proximal end of the shaft of the humerus. One possible metacarpal shaft of the hand.

The posterior surface of the distal shaft of the femur; two femoral midshaft fragments; an unfused distal shaft fragment (blue/white); the unfused diaphysis of the femur (blue/white). The epiphysis or possible proximal end of the tibia, partial fusion has taken place; the unfused distal end of a shaft (diaphysis) and the proximal end of a shaft of the tibia; another fragment of tibial shaft.

Seventeen fragments from joint/articular surfaces.

Twenty four fragments of unidentifiable long bone.

One hundred and forty four fragments of unidentifiable bone.

UPPER LAYER  (3CM) WITHIN THE POT

Weight: 110g.           Colour: white

Largest fragment: 3cm  (the shaft of a tibia). Average size of fragment: 1cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Six fragments of the orbit of the cranium. One possible humeral shaft fragment; three shafts of metacarpals (one blue). Two rib fragments. The superior articular process of a lumbar vertebra; the articular processes of two vertebrae and one transverse process of a thoracic vertebra.

Two fragments of the femoral head; two fragments of the anterior surface of the distal shaft of the femur. A possible fragment of the proximal tibial articulation and the anterior surface of the shaft of the tibia. One head of a metacarpal/metatarsal.

Fifty three long bone fragments.

Ninety seven unidentifiable fragments (six are blue).

MISCELLANEOUS BONE FRAGMENTS FROM FULL POT (WHERE EXACTLY?)

Weight: 160g).          Colour: white/grey; very friable.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.         Average size: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Twelve fragments of the nasal/maxillary bones; the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The two roots of a mandibular molar (blue); a fragment of the chin of the mandible containing the sockets of the incisors and canines; four alveolar sockets from the maxillae.

A proximal shaft of the humerus. Four rib fragments. One fragment of a vertebral body (unfused) and two other body fragments; one transverse process of a vertebra; two fragments from the posterior surface of the sacrum.

A fragment of the ilium containing a small portion of the sciatic notch; one fragment from the right pubic bone and one of the right acetabular portion of the ischium.

The posterior surface of the distal shaft of the left femur and a second fragment of the femur; three fragments of possible unfused condyles (epiphyses) of the distal end of the femur (blue). The distal articulation of the tibia. One medial phalanx of the foot; a fragment of the calcaneous (blue). One shaft of a metacarpal/metatarsal; the unfused base of a metatarsal.

Five fragments of unfused shaft (femur/tibia). Thirty one fragments of long bone shafts. Thirty one fragments of articular/joint surfaces.

One hundred ninety three unidentifiable blue fragments and twenty one white fragments.

CONTEXT 389: Area 6

Bone 58

Weight: 29g.              Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 2cm.         Average size of fragment: 2cm

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

Ninety four bone fragments, of these twenty eight are unidentifiable; thirty cranial, including parietal; the head of one medial phalanx of the hand, and

one rib shaft fragment

Thirty four fragments of long bones, including three possible fragments of femur/tibia, and one possible fragment of lunar/radial shaft.

CONTEXT 394: Area 6

Bone 60

Weight: 94g.              Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 3.2cm (long bone).  Average size of fragments: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

One hundred and three fragments of cranium, including the occipital, temporal, two small parts of the petrous portion of the temporal, one possible maxillary fragment containing one tooth socket.

At least one thoracic vertebra; four articular facets, including one lumbar and one inferior; one rib fragment; two articular fragments (probably carpals).

Sixty seven fragmented long bones.

One hundred and three unidentifiable fragments (numerous minute specks).

CONTEXT 520: Area 4

Bone 102

Weight: 5g.                Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 2.4cm.      Average size of fragment: 2cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one.

Eight bone fragments, including seven possible scapula fragments (but could also be faunal).

CONTEXT 568: Area 4

Bone 108

Weight: 5g.                Colour: white.

Largest bone fragment: 1cm.         Average size of fragment: 1cm.

Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.

One fragment of a small long bone is present.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks are due to Fiona Greene, MA for assistance in typing some of this report.

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